Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach was written as an aid in the beginning statistics course to students whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. The book follows a nontheoretical approach without formal proofs, explaining concepts intuitively and supporting them with abundant examples. The applications span a broad range of topics certain to appeal to the interests of students of diverse backgrounds and include problems in business, sports, health, architecture, education, entertainment, political science, psychology, history, criminal justice, the environment, transportation, physical sciences, demographics, eating habits, and travel and leisure.
While a number of important changes have been made in the eighth edition, the learning system remains untouched and provides students with a useful framework in which to learn and apply concepts. Some of the retained features include the following:
- Over 1800 exercises are located at the end of major sections within each chapter.
- Hypothesis-Testing Summaries are found at the end of Chapter 9 (z, t, x2, and F tests for testing means, proportions, and variances), Chapter 12 (correlation, chi-square, and ANOVA), and Chapter 13 (nonparametric tests) to show students the different types of hypotheses and the types of tests to use.
- A Data Bank listing various attributes (educational level, cholesterol level, gender, etc.) for 100 people and several additional data sets using real data are included and referenced in various exercises and projects throughout the book.
- An updated reference card containing the formulas and the z, t, x2, and PPMC tables is included with this textbook.
- End-of-chapter Summaries, Important Terms, and Important Formulas give students a concise summary of the chapter topics and provide a good source for quiz or test preparation.
- Review Exercises are found at the end of each chapter.
- Special sections called Data Analysis require students to work with a data set to perform various statistical tests or procedures and then summarize the results. The data are included in the Data Bank in Appendix D and can be downloaded from the book’s website at mhhe.com/bluman.
- Chapter Quizzes, found at the end of each chapter, include multiple-choice, true/false, and completion questions along with exercises to test students’ knowledge and comprehension of chapter content.
- The Appendixes provide students with an essential algebra review, an outline for report writing, Bayes’ theorem, extensive reference tables, a glossary, and answers to all quiz questions, all odd-numbered exercises, selected even-numbered exercises, and an alternate method for using the standard normal distribution.
- The Applying the Concepts feature is included in all sections and gives students an opportunity to think about the new concepts and apply them to hypothetical examples and scenarios similar to those found in newspapers, magazines, and radio and television news programs.
Changes in the Eighth Edition:
- Added over 30 new Examples and 250 new Exercises throughout the book.
- Chapter summaries were revised into bulleted paragraphs representing each section from the chapter.
- New Historical Notes and Interesting facts have been added throughout the book.
Updated and added new Speaking of Statistics. Revised the definition of nominal level of measurement.
Revised presentation for finding areas under the standard normal distribution curve. New figures created to clarify explanations for steps in the Central Limit Theorem.
Changed section 7.1 to Confidence Intervals for the Mean When s is Known. Maximum error of the estimate has been updated to the margin of error. Updated the Formula for the Confidence Interval of the Mean for a Specific a to include when s is Known. Added assumptions for Finding a Confidence Interval for a Mean When s is Known. Revised the explanation for rounding up when determining sample size. Added assumptions for Finding a Confidence Interval for a Mean when s is Unknown. Added assumptions for Finding a Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion. Added assumptions for Finding a Confidence Interval for a Variance or Standard Deviation.
Added assumptions for the z Test for a Mean When s Is Known. Added assumptions for the t Test for a Mean When s Is Unknown. Added assumptions for Testing a Proportion.
Revised the assumptions for the z Test to Determine the Difference Between Two Means. Added that it will be assumed that variances are not equal when using a t test to test the difference between means when the two samples are independent and when the samples are taken from two normally or approximately normally distributed populations. Added assumptions for the t Test for Two Independent Means When s1 and s2 Are Unknown. Added assumptions for the t Test for Two Means When the Samples Are Dependent. Added assumptions for the z Test for Two Proportions. Revised the assumptions for Testing the Difference Between Two Variables.
Added assumptions for the Correlation Coefficient. Residuals, are now covered in full with figures illustrating different examples of Residual Plots.
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